Shrubs

 
Shrubs information links
Azaleas
Ilex c
'Chesapeak'
Rhododendron 
Cephalotaxus harringtonia 'Duke Gardens' Ilex crenata 'Helleri'   
Cephalotaxus harringtonia 'Fastigiata' Ilex glabra 'Shamrock'   
Chaenomeles 'Scarlet Storm’ Ilex crenata 'Sky Pencil'   
Chamaecyparis thyoides 'Heatherbun' Ilex c
'Steede'
 
 Magnolia 'Betty'  
Chamaecyparis thyoids 'Oregon Blue' Pieris
'Cavatine'
 
Cornus sericea 'Baileyi'
Pieris
'Dorothy Wycoff'
 
Demanthus h
'Goshiki'
Pieris
'Passion Frost'
Forsythia × intermedia 'Lynwood Vaccinium 'Chippewa'   

Cephalotaxus harringtonia 'Duke Gardens'

Shrubs
Shrubs

Common Name(s): Duke Gardens yew
Category: Shrubs
Comment: Drought tolerant after established; heat tolerant; not wind tolerant. This plant is particularly resistant to damage by deer.
Height: 4-5 ft.
Foliage: 1-2.5 in. glossy, dark green leaves; aromatic fragrance
Flower: Non-showy flowers
Zones: 6 to 9
Habit: Evergreen
Site: Sun to partial shade; moist, well-drained soil
Texture: Medium
Form: Semi-formal, oval to rounded; upswept arching branches
Width: 4-5 ft.
Tags: deer resistant, evergreen

 Culture

Best grown in moist, sandy, well-drained soils in shady areas of the landscape. Tolerates shady conditions better than most needled evergreens. Tolerates full sun in cool summers, but prefers part shade conditions in areas with hot summers. Plants have good heat tolerance. Established plants tolerate some drought. Plants are not reliably winter hardy throughout USDA Zone 5 where they should be planted in protected locations.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Plants in the genus Cephalotaxus are commonly called plum yews because the "fruits" on female plants resemble tiny plums and the foliage resembles that of yews (Taxus). Cephalotaxus harringtonia is native from northeastern China to Korea and Japan. It is a dioecious coniferous evergreen that typically grows as a shrub to 5-10’ tall, but may be trained as a tree that will eventually rise to as much as 20-30’ tall. Growth is slow, however, and it may take as much as 10 years for a plant to reach 4’ tall. Linear, spirally-arranged, yew-like, evergreen leaves (to 1.5” long) appear in a v-shaped pattern on erect stems, many of which rise up from the base of the plant. Ripe fruits are edible. If fruits are desired, female plants with at least one male pollinator are required for fruit production to occur. Excellent tolerance for both shade and hot weather make this species an interesting substitute in the southeastern U. S. for yews that usually struggle south of USDA Zone 7. 'Duke Gardens' is a compact version that typically matures in a vase-shaped form to 2-3' tall. It was discovered growing at Duke Gardens at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina in 1958. It is an excellent accent plant for shaded areas of the landscape.

Problems

No serious insect or disease problems.

Garden Uses

Accent, group or mass. Excellent compact evergreen conifer for shady locations in the landscape.


Cephalotaxus harringtonia 'Fastigiata'

 

Shrubs
Shrubs

Common Name: Japanese plum yew
Type: Needled evergreen
Family: Taxaceae
Zone: 6 to 9
Height: 8.00 to 10.00 feet
Spread: 3.00 to 5.00 feet
Bloom Time: Non-flowering
Bloom Description: Non-flowering
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium
Maintenance: Medium
Leaf: Evergreen
Fruit: Showy
Other: Winter Interest
Tolerate: Deer, Drought

 Culture

Best grown in moist, sandy, well-drained soils in shady areas of the landscape. Tolerates shady conditions better than most needled evergreens. Tolerates full sun in cool summers, but prefers part shade conditions in areas with hot summers. Plants have good heat tolerance. Established plants tolerate some drought. Plants are not reliably winter hardy throughout USDA Zone 5 where they should be planted in protected locations.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Cephalotaxus harringtonia, commonly called plum yew, is a dioecious coniferous evergreen that typically grows as a shrub to 5-10’ tall, but may be trained as a tree that could eventually rise to as much as 20-30’ tall. Growth is slow, however, and it often takes as much as 10 years for a plant to reach 4’ tall. It is native to shaded woodland areas in Japan, northeastern China and Korea. Linear, spirally-arranged, yew-like, evergreen leaves (to 1.5” long) appear in a v-shaped pattern on erect stems, many of which rise up from the base of the plant. Female flowers produce fleshy, edible, plum-like fruits (to 1" long). If fruits are desired, female plants with at least one male pollinator are required for fruit production to occur. Excellent tolerance for both shade and hot weather make this species an interesting substitute in the southeastern U.S. for true yews (Taxus) that usually struggle south of USDA Zone 7.

Genus name comes from the Greek words kephale meaning a head and Taxus meaning yew for its resemblance to yews (Taxus).

Specific epithet honors the Earl of Harrington who became an early enthusiast for the species after its introduction to Europe in the 1820s.

Plants are commonly called plum yews because the fruits on female plants resemble tiny plums and the foliage resembles that of yews (Taxus).

'Fastigiata' is an upright columnar form that matures to 8-10' tall and to 3-5' wide. Yew-like blackish-green leaves (to 2" long) appear in bottlebrush form in contrast with the 2-ranked form of the species.

Problems

No serious insect or disease problems.

Garden Uses

Accent, group or mass. Excellent evergreen conifer for shady locations in the landscape.

Excellent fastigiate evergreen conifer.


 Chaenomeles 'Scarlet Storm’

Shrubs
Shrubs

Common Name: flowering quince
Type: Deciduous shrub
Family: Rosaceae
Zone: 5 to 9
Height: 3.00 to 4.00 feet
Spread: 3.00 to 4.00 feet
Bloom Time: April
Bloom Description: Scarlet red (double)
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium
Maintenance: Low
Suggested Use: Hedge, Naturalize
Flower: Showy
Tolerate: Drought, Erosion, Clay Soil

 Noteworthy Characteristics

Chaenomeles is a genus of three species from the mountains of China a Japan. They are prized for their very early showy flowers.

Genus name comes from the Greek words chaino meaning to gape and melon meaning an apple in the incorrect belief that the fruits split open.

‘Scarlet Storm’ is a flowering quince that is noted for producing an early spring bloom of double scarlet red flowers that resemble camellias. This is a dense, broad-rounded, thornless, deciduous shrub that typically grows to 3-4' tall and as wide. Bold scarlet red double flowers (to 2” diameter) bloom, often in profusion, before the leaves fully unfold in an early spring bloom. Plants do not produce fruit. Oval to oblong, glossy dark green leaves. No fall color. One of the Double Take series of flowering quinces was developed by Dr. Thomas Ranney at North Carolina State University Extension Center. U.S. Plant Patent Applied For (PPAF).

Problems

Susceptible to fungal leaf spot (particularly in years with heavy spring rainfall) which can cause considerable leaf defoliation. Fireblight and scab can be problems in some areas. Aphids can cause significant damage to new growth. Lesser pests include scale and mites. Chlorosis (yellowing of foliage) will occur in high pH soils. Flower buds are susceptible to significant damage from early spring frosts.

Garden Uses

Spring accent. Hedge. Specimen or group in shrub border or cottage garden. Branches may be clipped and forced for winter bloom.


 Chamaecyparis thyoides 'Heatherbun'

Shrubs
Shrubs

Common Name: white cypress
Type: Needled evergreen
Family: Cupressaceae
Zone: 4 to 8
Height: 6.00 to 8.00 feet
Spread: 4.00 to 5.00 feet
Bloom Time: Non-flowering
Bloom Description: Non-flowering
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium to wet
Maintenance: Low
Suggested Use: Hedge, Rain Garden
Leaf: Evergreen
Other: Winter Interest
Tolerate: Erosion

 Noteworthy Characteristics

Chamaecyparis thyoides, known by a number of common names including white cypress, Atlantic cedar or swamp cedar, is a columnar evergreen conifer with a steeple-like crown that typically grows with a straight trunk to 30-50' (less frequently to 90') tall. It is native to freshwater swamps, bogs and wet woods along the Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida and along the Gulf coast from Florida to Mississippi. It is the State Tree of New Jersey where it may be seen growing in large pure colonies. Scale-like adult leaves and needle-like juvenile leaves are a soft blue green. Yellow pollen-bearing cones are found at the stem ends. Seed bearing cones in clusters emerge purple but mature to brown. Mature bark is reddish brown. Wood has excellent resistance to decay and has been used for a number of purposes including boat construction, shingles and posts.

Genus name comes from Greek chamai meaning dwarf or to the ground and kyparissos meaning cypress tree.

'Heatherbun' is a dwarf rounded cultivar that typically grows to 6-8' tall and to 4-5' wide. It is noted for having a medium green foliage that turns an attractive heather purple to plum purple in winter.

Problems

No serious insect or disease problems. Some susceptibility to juniper blight, root rot and certain insect pests such as bagworms.

Garden Uses

Landscape specimen. Foundation plantings. Hedge. Good selection for areas where the attractive winter foliage may be enjoyed.


Chamaecyparis thyoids 'Oregon Blue'

Shrubs
Shrubs

Common Name: white cypress
Type: Needled evergreen
Family: Cupressaceae
Native Range: Eastern United States
Zone: 4 to 8
Height: 30.00 to 50.00 feet
Spread: 30.00 to 40.00 feet
Bloom Time: Non-flowering
Bloom Description: Non-flowering
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium to wet
Maintenance: Low
Leaf: Evergreen
Other: Winter Interest
Tolerate: Erosion

Culture

Easily grown in average, moist, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Best in full sun. Thrives in moist, fertile, peaty-sandy soils. Tolerates some wet soils. Shelter from strong winds. Pruning is rarely needed.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Chamaecyparis thyoides, known by a number of common names including white cypress, Atlantic cedar or swamp cedar, is a columnar evergreen conifer with a steeple-like crown that typically grows with a straight trunk to 30-50' (less frequently to 90') tall. It is native to freshwater swamps, bogs and wet woods along the Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida and along the Gulf coast from Florida to Mississippi. It is the State Tree of New Jersey where it may be seen growing in large pure colonies. Scale-like adult leaves and needle-like juvenile leaves are a soft blue green. Yellow pollen-bearing cones are found at the stem ends. Seed bearing cones in clusters emerge purple but mature to brown. Mature bark is reddish brown. Wood has excellent resistance to decay and has been used for a number of purposes including boat construction, shingles and posts.

Genus name comes from Greek chamai meaning dwarf or to the ground and kyparissos meaning cypress tree.

Problems

No serious insect or disease problems. Some susceptibility to juniper blight, root rot and certain insect pests such as bagworms.

Garden Uses

Landscape specimen.


Chamaecyparis thyoides ' Vintage Gold’

Shrubs
Shrubs

Common Name: Japanese falsecypress
Type: Needled evergreen
Family: Cupressaceae
Zone: 5 to 8
Height: 5.00 to 7.00 feet
Spread: 3.00 to 5.00 feet
Bloom Time: Non-flowering
Bloom Description: Non-flowering
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium
Maintenance: Low
Leaf: Colorful, Evergreen
Other: Winter Interest
Tolerate: Drought

Culture

Easily grown in average, medium moisture, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Best in part shade. Prefers moist, fertile soils. Avoid wet, poorly-drained soils. Shelter from strong winds. Pruning is rarely needed.

Best golden foliage color in full sun.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Chamaecyparis pisifera, commonly known as Sawara cypress, is a large, pyramidal, evergreen conifer that grows in the wild to 50-70’ (infrequently to 150') tall with a trunk diameter to 5'. In cultivation, it more typically matures to a much smaller 20-30' tall. It is naive to the Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu. Fine-textured medium green needles are tinted white beneath. Cones are small (1/4" across) and ornamentally insignificant, appearing glaucous green during summer before turning black-brown when ripe. Reddish brown bark peels in strips. Species plants are rarely sold in commerce, but a large number of more compact cultivars including some dwarfs are available for purchase.

Three well known forms of C. pisifera are: (1) C. pisifera f. filifera (threadbranch sawara cypress featuring drooping, whip or cord-like branches covered primarily with scale-like adult leaves), (2) C. pisifera f. plumosa (plume sawara cypress featuring feathery, airy and ferny branches covered with part adult/part juvenile leaves) and (3) C. pisifera f. squarrosa (moss sawara cypress featuring branches with soft, needle-like juvenile leaves).

Genus name comes from Greek chamai meaning dwarf or to the ground and kyparissos meaning cypress tree.

Specific epithet comes from the Latin word pissum meaing pea and ferre meaing to bear in reference to the very small rounded cones.

'Vintage Gold' is a dwarf, golden foliage form of Sawara cypress. It is an evergreen, mounding, globose cultivar that reportedly will reach a mature height of 5-7 feet tall. It features golden, fine-textured, feathery foliage. Slower growing.

Problems

No serious insect or disease problems. Some susceptibility to juniper blight, root rot and certain insect pests such as bagworms.

Garden Uses

Species and large growing cultivars for lawn specimen, shrub borders and screen.
 
Dwarf cultivars for rock gardens, foundation plantings or specimen.

Excellent dwarf specimen. Golden foliage provides year-round interest.

Forsythia × intermedia 'Lynwood’

Shrubs
Shrubs

Common Name: border forsythia

Type: Deciduous shrub
Family: Oleaceae
Zone: 5 to 8
Height: 6.00 to 9.00 feet
Spread: 6.00 to 9.00 feet
Bloom Time: March to April
Bloom Description: Yellow
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium
Maintenance: Low
Suggested Use: Hedge
Flower: Showy
Leaf: Good Fall
Tolerate: Deer, Clay Soil, Black Walnut

Culture

Easily grown in loose, medium moisture, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Best flower production is in full sun. Tolerates average to poor garden soils. Moderate drought tolerance once established. Shrubs are vegetatively winter hardy to USDA Zones 5-8, but may not always flower well in Zone 5 because of harsh winter temperatures or late winter freezes of unopened flowers. Flower buds are typically lost when winter temperatures fall below -5 degrees F. Development of unkempt growth often occurs if shrubs are not regularly pruned immediately after spring flowering (pruning done after mid-July will remove flower buds for the following spring). A wide range of pruning options exists for 6-10’ tall hybrids, one option being (a) an annual post-flowering removal of old wood combined with cosmetic shaping of the shrub, and (b) a major cut back of stems to almost ground level every 3-4 years for rejuvenation. Shrubs have good tolerance for urban conditions. Some cultivars may sucker. Cultivars are primarily propagated by rooted stem cuttings.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Forsythia x intermedia, commonly known as border forsythia, is a deciduous hybrid shrub with upright-arching to spreading, often square-stemmed branches clad with ovate to lanceolate medium to dark green leaves (to 3-5” long and to 1” wide) which have toothed margins in the upper 1/2. Most cultivars mature to 6-10’ tall spreading to as much as 12’ wide, but some compact cultivars rise to only 30” tall. Shrubs are primarily noted for their brilliant, 4-lobed, often abundant golden flowers (each to 1 1/2” long) which typically bloom in clusters of 2-6 along the branches in late winter to early spring (February-March in Atlanta but March-early April in St. Louis). Flowers bloom before, or in some cases simultaneous to, the emergence of the new foliage. This shrub is sometimes referred to as the harbinger of spring or the ultimate symbol of spring because the flowers brighten the landscape at a time when not much else is in bloom. These shrubs are hybrids between weeping forsythia (F. suspensa) and greenstem forsythia (F. viridissima), with x intermedia referring to the hybrid characteristics being intermediate between those of the parents.

Notwithstanding their excellent late winter-early spring bloom, however, these hybrid shrubs are often described as one-season wonders which somewhat fade into the landscape after bloom. Fruits (small brown capsules) are non-ornamental. Fall foliage color is typically an ordinary yellow-green, but sometimes purplish. Growth can be rampant, often requiring occasional rejuvenation pruning.

Genus name honors William Forsyth (1737-1804), Scottish superintendent of the Royal Gardens of Kensington Palace and author, among other works, of A Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees which in its day was probably the most widely read work on the subject.

Specific epithet refers to the hybrid characteristics being intermediate between those of the parents.

‘Linwood Variety’ is a naturally-occurring branch sport of F. x intermedia ‘Spectabilis’. It typically grows to 6-9’ tall and as wide. It was originally discovered in 1935 growing in a garden called Lynwood located in Cookstown, County Throne, Northern Ireland. Somewhat larger-than-normal bright yellow flowers (to 1 3/4” long) cover the shrub with bloom before the foliage emerges in late winter to early spring. Ovate leaves with toothed margins are dark green. Leaves turn yellow with purple tinges in fall.

Problems

No serious insect or disease problems. Some susceptibility to leaf spot, crown gall and dieback. Watch for spider mites, aphids, four-lined plant bug, Japanese weevil and northern root-knot nematode.

Garden Uses

Group in borders. Mass on banks or slopes. Sunny areas of open woodland gardens. Cottage gardens. Hedges.


 Cornus sericea 'Baileyi'

Shrubs
Shrubs

Shrubs
Shrubs

Common Name: red twig dogwood
Type: Deciduous shrub
Family: Cornaceae
Zone: 3 to 8
Height: 6.00 to 10.00 feet
Spread: 6.00 to 10.00 feet
Bloom Time: May to June
Bloom Description: White
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium to wet
Maintenance: Medium
Suggested Use: Hedge, Rain Garden
Flower: Showy
Leaf: Good Fall
Attracts: Birds, Butterflies
Fruit: Showy
Other: Winter Interest
Tolerate: Deer, Erosion, Clay Soil, Wet Soil

Culture

Best grown in organically rich, fertile, consistently moist soils in full sun to part shade. Tolerant of a wide range of soils, including swampy or boggy conditions. Trim roots with a spade and promptly remove root suckers if colonial spread is undesired. Best stem color occurs on young stems. Although pruning is not required, many gardeners choose to remove 20-25% of the oldest stems in early spring of each year to stimulate growth of new stems which will display the best color. As an alternative to annual pruning, some gardeners prune all stems close to the ground (coppice to 8") in early spring every 2-3 years to renew. Any loss of flowers through spring pruning is not terribly significant since the small flowers of this dogwood are rather ordinary. Plants become stressed and more vulnerable to diseases such as canker in hot and humid summer climates south of USDA Zone 7.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Cornus sericea, commonly known as red twig dogwood or red osier dogwood, is an upright-spreading, suckering shrub that typically grows in the absence of pruning to 6-9’ tall with a slightly larger spread. With the exception of the lower midwest and deep South, this species is native to much of North America where it is typically found growing in wet swampy areas, wetland margins or along lakes and rivers. Ovate to lanceolate, medium to dark green leaves (2-5” long) acquire interesting shades of red to orange eventually fading to purple in autumn. Reddish stems turn bright red in winter and are particularly showy against a snowy backdrop. Tiny, fragrant, white flowers appear in flat-topped clusters (cymes to 2.5” diameter) in late spring, with sparse, intermittent, additional flowering sometimes continuing into summer. Flowers give way to clusters of whitish (sometimes with a bluish tinge) drupes in summer. Fruit is quite attractive to birds and is generally considered to have as much if not more ornamental interest than the flowers.

Red stems somewhat resemble the reddish stems of some osier willows, hence the common name of red osier dogwood. Some cultivars of this species (e.g., C. sericea 'Flaviramia') have yellow stems.

Synonymous with and formerly known as Cornus stolonifera.

Genus name comes from the Latin word cornu meaning horn in probable reference to the strength and density of the wood. Cornus is also the Latin name for cornelian cherry.

Specific epithet from Latin means silky in reference to the hairs present on young twigs and upper leaf surfaces.

'Baileyi' is a redtwig dogwood cultivar. It is a rapid-growing, multi-stemmed, deciduous shrub which grows to a maximum size of 6-10' tall with a loose, rounded habit. It lacks the stoloniferous, spreading habit of the species and is listed in Hortus Third as Cornus sericea forma baileyi. Some nurseries sell the plant as Cornus baileyi. The outstanding ornamental feature of this plant is its bright red winter stems. Leaves (2-4" long) have curling hairs underneath.

Problems

Susceptible to leaf and twig blights, canker and leaf spots. Scale, leaf miners and bagworms are occasional insect pests.

Garden Uses

Excellent massed or as a specimen. Effective in shrub borders where plants can be combined with evergreens or a contrasting color of redtwig dogwoods for interesting winter contrast. Also effective in naturalistic plantings in moist soils where plants can be allowed to spread and form thickets. Plants perform very well in wet locations such as low spots or along streams or ponds where spreading roots can help combat soil erosion. May also be used as a property line screen.


Ilex crenata 'Chesapeake'


Ilex crenata 'Sky Pencil'

Shrubs
Shrubs

Common Name: Japanese holly
Type: Broadleaf evergreen
Family: Aquifoliaceae
Zone: 6 to 8
Height: 4.00 to 10.00 feet
Spread: 1.00 to 3.00 feet
Bloom Time: May to June
Bloom Description: Greenish white
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium
Maintenance: Medium
Suggested Use: Hedge
Flower: Insignificant
Leaf: Evergreen
Other: Winter Interest
Tolerate: Air Pollution

 Culture

Easily grown in average, medium moisture well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Tolerant of a wide variety of soils ranging from moist to dry and from sand to clay. Prefers light, moist, acidic soils with good drainage. Established plants have some tolerance for drought. Plants may struggle with the heat and humidity of summers in the deep South in USDA Zones 8-9. Plants are dioecious (male and female flowers on separate plants), so both male and female plants must be present in order for the female plant to be pollinated and produce fruit.

'Sky Pencil' is an all-female cultivar which needs a male pollinator in order to produce fruit. Maintains columnar shape without pruning. May not be reliably winter hardy throughout USDA Zone 5 where it should be grown in a protected location with a winter mulch.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Ilex crenata, commonly known as Japanese holly or box-leaved holly, is a dense, multi-branched, evergreen shrub with a rounded form that typically matures to 5-10’ tall and as wide. It is native to forests, thickets and mountain slopes in Japan, Korea, China and eastern Russia (Sakhalin). It is noted for its ovate to elliptic, crenate to serrulate, glossy, spineless, evergreen, deep green leaves (to 1 1/4" long) which are attractive all year, 4 petaled white flowers which bloom in 3-7 flowered cymes in late spring (May-June), and black rounded somewhat inconspicuous fruits (drupes to 1/4” diameter) which mature in fall on pollinated female plants.

Genus name comes from the Latin name Quercus ilex for holm oak in reference to the foliage similarities (holm oak and many of the shrubs in the genus Ilex have evergreen leaves).

Specific epithet is in obvious reference to the crenate margins of the leaves.

'Sky Pencil' is an exceedingly narrow, fastigiate form which grows somewhat slowly in a vertical, pencil-like column to 10' tall but only 2-3' wide. A typical 4-6' tall specimen may only be 10-12" wide. 'Sky Pencil' is an introduction of the U.S. National Arboretum in Washington, D.C.

Problems

No serious insect or disease problems. Spider mites can be troublesome. Nematodes are a problem in the South.

Garden Uses

Mass or group. Hedge. Borders. Incorporate into a foundation planting.


 Ilex crenata 'Helleri'

Shrubs
Shrubs

Common Name: Japanese holly
Type: Broadleaf evergreen
Family: Aquifoliaceae
Zone: 5 to 8
Height: 2.00 to 4.00 feet
Spread: 3.00 to 5.00 feet
Bloom Time: May
Bloom Description: White
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium
Maintenance: Medium
Suggested Use: Hedge
Leaf: Evergreen
Fruit: Showy
Other: Winter Interest
Tolerate: Deer, Clay Soil, Air Pollution

Culture

Easily grown in average, medium moisture well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Tolerant of a wide variety of soils ranging from moist to dry and from sand to clay. Prefers light, moist, acidic soils with good drainage. Established plants have some tolerance for drought. Plants may struggle with the heat and humidity of summers in the deep South in USDA Zones 8-9. Plants are dioecious (male and female flowers on separate plants), so both male and female plants must be present in order for the female plant to be pollinated and produce fruit.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Ilex crenata, commonly known as Japanese holly or box-leaved holly, is a dense, multi-branched, evergreen shrub with a rounded form that typically matures to 5-10’ tall and as wide. It is native to forests, thickets and mountain slopes in Japan, Korea, China and eastern Russia (Sakhalin). It is noted for its ovate to elliptic, crenate to serrulate, glossy, spineless, evergreen, deep green leaves (to 1 1/4" long) which are attractive all year, 4 petaled white flowers which bloom in 3-7 flowered cymes in late spring (May-June), and black rounded somewhat inconspicuous fruits (drupes to 1/4” diameter) which mature in fall on pollinated female plants.

Genus name comes from the Latin name Quercus ilex for holm oak in reference to the foliage similarities (holm oak and many of the shrubs in the genus Ilex have evergreen leaves).

Specific epithet is in obvious reference to the crenate margins of the leaves.

'Helleri' is a dwarf-rounded, slow-growing, evergreen, female cultivar that is densely clad with tiny, glossy, obovate, evergreen leaves (to only 1/2" long). It typically matures to 2-4' tall and to 3-5' wide over time unless pruned smaller. It infrequently produces spring flowers or fall fruit. 'Helleri' was introduced into commerce in 1936 by J. Helleri of Newport, Rhode Island.

Problems

No serious insect or disease problems. Spider mites can be troublesome. Nematodes are a problem in the South.

Garden Uses

Mass or group. Hedge. Borders. Incorporate into a foundation planting.


Ilex glabra 'Shamrock'

Shrubs
Shrubs

Common Name: inkberry
Type: Broadleaf evergreen
Family: Aquifoliaceae
Zone: 4 to 9
Height: 3.00 to 4.00 feet
Spread: 3.00 to 4.00 feet
Bloom Time: May to June
Bloom Description: Greenish-white
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium to wet
Maintenance: Low
Suggested Use: Hedge, Rain Garden
Flower: Insignificant
Leaf: Evergreen
Attracts: Birds
Other: Winter Interest
Tolerate: Rabbit, Deer, Erosion, Wet Soil, Air Pollution

Culture

Easily grown in average, medium to wet soils in full sun to part shade. Adaptable to both light and heavy soils. Tolerates wet soils. Prefers rich, consistently moist, acidic soils in full sun. Good shade tolerance, however. Avoid neutral to alkaline soils. Inkberries are dioecious (separate male and female plants). Female plants need a male pollinator in order to produce the berry-like drupes that are characteristic of the species and cultivars. Prune to shape in early spring just before new growth begins. Plants generally need minimal pruning unless used as a hedge (perhaps best grown as an informal hedge). Remove root suckers regularly if colonial spread is not desired.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Ilex glabra, commonly called inkberry or gallberry, is a slow-growing, upright-rounded, stoloniferous, broadleaf evergreen shrub in the holly family. It typically matures to 5-8’ tall, and can spread by root suckers to form colonies. It is native to the coastal plain from Nova Scotia to Florida to Louisiana where it is most commonly found in sandy woods and peripheries of swamps and bogs. Spineless, flat, ovate to elliptic, glossy, dark green leaves (to 1.5” long) have smooth margins with several marginal teeth near the apex. Leaves usually remain attractive in winter unless temperatures dip well below zero. Greenish white flowers (male in cymes and female in cymes or single) appear in spring, but are relatively inconspicuous. If pollinated, female flowers give way to pea-sized, jet black, berry-like drupes (inkberries to 3/8" diameter) which mature in early fall and persist throughout winter to early spring unless consumed by local bird populations. Gallberry honey is a highly-rated honey that results from bees feeding on inkberry flowers. This honey is locally produced in certain parts of the Southeastern U.S. in areas where beekeepers release bees from late April to early June to coincide with inkberry flowering time. Dried and roasted inkberry leaves were first used by Native Americans to brew a black tea-like drink, hence the sometimes used common name of Appalachian tea for this shrub.

Genus name comes from the Latin name Quercus ilex for holm oak in reference to the foliage similarities (holm oak and many of the shrubs in the genus Ilex have evergreen leaves).

Specific epithet means smooth in reference to plant leaf surfaces.

'Shamrock' is a compact rounded cultivar that grows 3-4' tall and suckers less than the species.

Problems

No serious insect or disease problems. Leaf spot is an occasional problem. Spider mites may appear, especially in dry conditions. Susceptible to chlorosis (yellowing of leaves) in high pH (alkaline) soils.

Garden Uses

Mass or group. Excellent for shrub borders, foundation plantings or as a low hedge. Also effective naturalized in moist woodland gardens or in moist locations near streams or ponds. This species is noted for its ability to perform well in wet sites.


Magnolia 'Betty

Shrubs
Shrubs

 

Shrubs
Shrubs

Common Name: magnolia
Type: Deciduous shrub
Family: Magnoliaceae
Zone: 4 to 8
Height: 10.00 to 15.00 feet
Spread: 8.00 to 12.00 feet
Bloom Time: April to May
Bloom Description: Reddish-purple with white interior
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium
Maintenance: Medium
Suggested Use: Hedge, Flowering Tree
Flower: Showy
Tolerate: Clay Soil, Air Pollution

Culture

'Betty' is a late-blooming magnolia that is less apt to suffer frost damage in spring.

Noteworthy Characteristics

The genus Magnolia consists of about 100 species (plus numerous additional hybrids and cultivars) of deciduous or evergreen trees and shrubs. Most plants feature large simple leaves and showy, sometimes fragrant flowers (yellow, white, pink or purple) which bloom in early spring before or while the leaves are emerging or in late spring to summer when trees are fully leaved.

Genus name honors Pierre Magnol, French botanist (1638-1715).

‘Betty’ is a cross between M. liliiflora ‘Nigra’ and M. stellata ‘Rosea’. It is part of the Little Girl Series (‘Ann’, ‘Betty’, ‘Jane’, ‘Judy’, ‘Pinkie’, ‘Randy’, ‘Ricki’ and ‘Susan’) of hybrid magnolias that were developed at the National Arboretum in the mid-1950s by Francis DeVos and William Kosar. Plants in this series flower about 2-4 weeks later than M. stellata and M. x soulangiana, thus reducing the risk of damage to flowers from late spring frosts. ‘Betty’ is primarily noted for its shrubby habit, large reddish-purple flowers with white interiors and late bloom (mid-April to early May). It is a slow-growing, deciduous shrub or small tree that typically rises over time to 10-15’ tall with a spread to 8-12’ wide. Large cup-shaped flowers (to 8” diameter) are reddish-purple with white inside. Flowers bloom shortly before the foliage begins to appear. Plants may sporadically repeat bloom in mid-summer. Ovate leaves (to 6” long) emerge with copper-red tints in spring, turn dark green by late spring and finally acquire yellow to bronze-copper tones in fall.

Problems

No serious insect or disease problems. Potential disease problems include leaf spots, anthracnose, canker, dieback and powdery mildew. Potential insect problems include weevils, snails, scale, and thrips.

Garden Uses

Beautiful specimen flowering shrub for lawns, foundations, shrub borders or woodland peripheries. May be grown as a tall informal hedge.


Osmanthus heterophyllus 'Goshiki'

Common Name: holly olive
Type: Broadleaf evergreen
Family: Oleaceae
Native Range: Japan and Taiwan
Zone: 7 to 9
Height: 8.00 to 10.00 feet
Spread: 7.00 to 9.00 feet
Bloom Time: September
Bloom Description: White
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium
Maintenance: Medium
Flower: Showy, Fragrant
Leaf: Evergreen
Other: Winter Interest
Tolerate: Drought, Clay Soil

Culture

Winter hardy to USDA Zone 7 (perhaps Zone 6). If grown in Zone 6, it should be sited in a protected location with a winter mulch. It is best grown in rich, consistently moist, well-drained garden soils in full sun to part shade. Best with part afternoon shade in hot summer climates. Tolerates heavy clays. Drought tolerant once established. Clip off growing tips to maintain compact size and to encourage bushiness. In St. Louis, plants may be grown in containers which must be overwintered indoors in bright cool locations.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Osmanthus heterophyllus, commonly called holly olive or false olive, is a dense, upright, bushy evergreen shrub that typically grows to 8-10' tall and as wide in cultivation, but may reach 25' tall in the wild in its native habitat (Japan and Taiwan). It is noted for producing leathery, ovate to elliptic, deep green leaves (to 2 1/2" long) which vary in shape: juvenile leaves typically have holly-like spiny margins (often 3-5 spiny teeth per side with a single tooth at the apex) and adult leaves typically are entire. The amount of toothing per leaf often varies considerably on the same shrub. Although the spiny juvenile leaves resemble the leaves of some hollies, holly olive leaves are opposite and holly leaves are alternate. Tiny fragrant 4-petaled white flowers bloom from the leaf axils in small clusters in fall. Plants are dioecious (male and female flowers on separate plants). Flowers are often hidden in the foliage. Fruits (5/8" long) on female plants ripen in the year after flowering, but are usually not produced in cultivation.

Genus name comes from the Greek words osme meaning fragrant and anthos meaning flower.

Specific epithet comes from the Greek hetero meaning different and phyllus meaning leaf in recognition of the leaf variations.

Problems

No serious insect or disease problems. Watch for scale and aphids.

Garden Uses

Where winter hardy, holly olive forms an excellent screen or hedge. Shrub border.

 

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